СЕМЬЯ НА ФОНЕ СОЦИАЛЬНОКУЛЬТУРНЫХ ПРЕОБРАЗОВАНИЙ В ПОСЛЕВОЕННОЙ ПОЛЬШЕ
В статье описываются изменения, которые произошли в Польше в последние годы в понимании семьи, ее структура, значение. Поляки ценят семью как общественную ценность, именно поэтому в эфире идет большая рекламная компания семейных ценностей. Семья используется как бренд, для продвижения продукта. Реклама это инструмент маркетинга, а также инструмент системы ценностей, который может подчеркнуть важность рекомендуемого продукта.
Семья, реклама, социальная система ценностей, семейные ценности.
FAMILY IN THE BACKGROUND OF SOCIO-CULTURAL TRANSFORMATIONS IN POST-WAR POLAND
The article describes the changes that have taken place Poland in recent years in understanding the family, its structure, meaning. Poles appreciate the family, as a socially valued, that is why it is a great theme broadcast advertising campaigns. The family dimension of the product, Family (multi) use of the brand, highlight the attractiveness of the product. Advertising is an instrument of marketing plan, but also an instrument of a system of values to emphasize the importance of the recommended product.
Family, advertising, social system of values, values of family.
The Family concept
It is universally acknowledged that the family is a basic social unit. It is perceived as a union of man and woman. In historically developed concepts about its understanding these preferences are attributed to legal unions, in the way which is acceptable in a given society in terms of customs, state or religion. Irrespective of conditions and circumstances taken into account while analyzing, the family is always a value in itself in social terms. It should be classified as a historical category, a variable influenced by changing social, economic and political conditions, but it is also a real being which does not depend on social and economic processes or influences of state, ideology or interpretation.
Most of the time the family is perceived in its constructional aspect as a union of man and woman. For many centuries, however, its scope was often discussed and assessed. According to J.I. Flandrin «the family is a group of people affiliated by marriage or parenthood or by a sequence of people in which one is a child of another and they all form a line, a race or a dynasty. In a narrower
meaning this category defines people who are affiliated and living together, particularly father, mother and children» [4, p. 8].
Relations between these people, who are not strangers but affiliated and forming lines of ascendants and descendants, are an important element of this definition. Domicile, which is a place of residence, is an additional factor. He also cites French Encyclopedia authors who define family in their Dictionnaire de l'academie' from 1694 as «all the people living in one house and subordinated to the head of family» [4, p. 9].
According to L. Dyczewski «it is a small group with a community character and also a social institution which is characterized by a deep and complementary union of man and woman, which is based on love and willingness (this institution is perceived in legal, economic and social categories). Second, one of fundamental functions of family is reproduction in the both in biological and spiritual sense as well as in the individual and social aspect of life. The man is perceived here as an autotelic value and "an inviolable holiness". Third, the family is perceived as a community which is responsible for rearing children and their development. Fourth, summing up, "the family is a union of people and a social institution based on love and free will of man and women united by marriage, who are responsible for themselves and they give birth and rear the next generation so that the next generation could give birth and rear their offspring too» [3, pp. 2627]. The assets and feelings which they share form the foundation on which the family functions.
The process of acknowledging the family as an institution results in changing the role of individuals in society as well as expectations among close family members and more distant family members of each party. The subjective aspect also influences the system of preferences, needs, objectives and ways to achieve them. They are mostly determined by man and woman but they are also based on their experiences, habits, actions and values they brought from their family homes. The social aspect of perceiving family results from ambitions of its members and a natural processes of individuals living in a group. Because of this family is often interpreted in the naturalist framework which is traditionally related to Christianity. Understood this way, it is an important element in society and state composition irrespective of the roles attributed to their members. The system of composing family based on convenience, which began in Ancient Rome, is still used nowadays though in a limited scope. It was the Romans who added a political aspect to the marriage act. M. Gizowski is right saying that «the model of Roman family and the way it was traditionally understood had a positive influence on stability and durability of Roman law» [1, pp. 10]. The families which were part of big clans and dynasties were soon to go beyond their natural goals. They became an important factor shaping and taking part in social and political life. Even the way spouses were matched became a research field and its political, social and economic aspects were analyzed. Maintaining the so-
cial status made free choice limited. In the beginning spouses were chosen from the same social structure, but it soon became a source of all kinds of agreements and arrangements. Very often spouses intentionally gave up traditional marriage binds for other social values and benefits. Love as a feeling binding spouses did not have any meaning compared with other values such as the benefit of state. Sharing duties by spouses and traditional roles of man and woman began in ancient times is still valid today in some countries. No changes took place as far as making home, rearing children and preparing meals go. This is a traditional scope of duties for women and her role in society is understood just this way. Social activities, making decisions, providing ford and safety is the field of man. Ancient Mediterranean civilizations built foundations for sharing rights and duties between spouses .
Christian patriarchy in Europe set new standards in the perception of the family. It was legitimized by the Catholic religion, sanctioning the wife's and children's total subordination to her husband.. As noted by M. Gizowski «generally in medieval Europe - despite the fact that small, nuclear families also occurred particularly in developing urban centers, big, extended families were dominant. They were monogamous and patriarchal which in most cases was in harmony with social and political systems of that time» [1, p. 310].
Economic changes of the capitalist era disorganized this universally approved model. The spouses' work was no longer about mutual actions. Specializing in some professions became vital and the number of people hired to work in newly built factories increased. Political changes influence abilities to meet objectives both by men and women. „The individual, not the family became central and it was in harmony with classical liberalism and democracy. The assumption was that the state did not interfere in the field of social life, but individuals kept coping with pressure of the society, parties and associations as well as social and political movements. Some political and ideological thoughts, particularly Marxist and ultra-liberal questioned the idea of family. They treated family as obsolescent and used anti-Christian rhetoric to denigrate it. The concept of family composition and its role changed. In capitalist countries the model family was the nuclear family. There were close family members in it and the way work was shared was a traditional one. There was also a big, extended family model. Social mobility and urbanization processes caused that these forms became preferred. At the turn of XIX and XX centuries the world was mired in social and economic crisis and some efforts were made to look for solutions in the fields of social policy, housing, health care, social insurance and employment protection for individuals and families. Welfare state models imposed these demanding concepts on authorities to help citizens. Social and economical processes enhanced preferences for these forms.
Communism and capitalism, two political systems functioning from the end of the Second World War, treated positions and roles of family in the society in
different ways. In capitalist states families were protected, whereas in communist states it was questioned if they should exist at all. After the War the world population became smaller and the reproductive function of family should be even more important, but at that time the individual and individual needs were more protected. The family was given a new dimension of a fundamental unit in society. It became important both for the individual and for the global society. The fact that families were mentioned in constitutions became the source of numerous legal acts aimed at protecting families.
Irrespective of the form applied, the process of acceptance which was universal caused a change of the individual's role in society. The expectations towards individuals living together, their mutual expectations as well as expectations towards the individuals' families also changed. The subjective aspect also influences the system of preferences, objectives and ways to achieve them. They are decided by the man and the woman together and determined by their habits, experience and values from their own families. The social character of understanding families results both from expectations of their members and from the natural processes of individuals living in a group.
Apart from ideological disputes, the reproductive view of family prevails and it is preferred in the patriarchal model typical of ancient times, feudalism and most of capitalism.
The most popular formula describing a traditional family lists the following members: the mother, the father and a child or children. This basic formula puts people together not only because of the fact that they live together. They also make decisions together, they have some responsibilities and liabilities and they are emotionally bound to each other. They also have some functions as a family such as the reproductive, social, cultural and economical function [1, p. 304].
Changes in perceiving the family in post-war Poland
There was a certain duality in the way families were perceived by authorities in post-war Poland. On the one hand, there were some constitutional guarantees for the family understood traditionally, for protecting its needs. On the other hand, informal partnerships were permitted and some family functions were attributed to them too. What we call partnerships now, at that time was called cohabiting. Moreover, when divorces were legal and more popular, divorcees become eligible to remarry as were widows and widowers. Apart from that, the authorities wanted to rebuild the country's potential in economy and active participation was required. Since both men and women were required, a system of solutions was made to transfer some maternity duties to the institutional sector.
Achieving the objectives given to state institutions in reference to families can take a number of forms. The most important instrument, however, is the
right to make and apply law. The state shapes family relations by building a system of education, social benefits and non-material incentives. In this way the state guarantees security, shapes family relations and the meaning of this notion.
Analyzing the system of solutions developed in Poland of the communist era it may be noted that the family as a basic unit of society was not protected as much as it could be expected. Stressing the importance of this social structure, the system of norms developed resulted from constitutional sources of law. Starting from the fundamentals which defined its status, the role of state and responsibilities concerning families, standards of living and legal guarantees for women in particular the differences become more tangible. They were made in education and work, particularly women doing jobs traditionally reserved for men. Social benefits such as maternity leaves became available for mothers. State institutions took care of children and even in the military, women appeared in some positions which were not front line positions, but it meant a conceptual change anyway.
The state policy in the field of urban development helps women achieve their objectives. The man's role in the partnership became smaller.
The family was understood liberally in the communist Poland and it caused many controversies started by the Roman-Catholic church and its adherents. With divorces available and child custodies given to one parent the family may become obsolescent or atrophic. It may also lead to reification. In the eighties it was noted that the family should be the creator of all individual successes and therefore it should be supported. This conclusion was made in the so called Gdansk Social Accords from August 1980. Family and marriage problems were often mentioned by John Paul II in his sermons and publications. In 1983 Karta Praw Rodziny (The Charter of Family Rights) was issued. It stressed among other things that parents have an unalienable right to rear children and for the woman the basic role should be that of a mother and this role does not limit other social roles in any way. It is an important function of families to rear children and to face risks. The Concordat signed in 1998 made religious ceremonies equivalent with civil ceremonies.
The vision of family in new social and economic reality
The family is being redefined in Poland and this is a dynamic process which changes the sense and responsibilities of family. These changes are a reflection of processes taking place all over the world. The analyses conducted so far show conclusively that family is the highest value for inhabitants of Poland. The level of social acceptance for the family and its values has not changed for the last thirty years though perceiving families in terms of structure and respon-
sibilities has changed. It results from external and internal conditions shaping the face of Poland.
The external conditions are the following:
- secularization of life;
- new lifestyle;
- changing preferences in the individual "way of life";
- better social and economic conditions.
The internal conditions are the following:
- lack of material security in families;
- bad policy regarding families;
- overestimating individuals;
- migration and emigration.
The tendencies in preferences concerning human life are worldwide and they are reflected in Polish reality too. Individual freedom, yearning for success by extended education, professional career, women working professionally and changes in perceiving families to name just a few. There is another issue, namely the declarations made by authorities. They all make void promises to stand by and look for families as well as offer all kinds of support. It all means that legalizing marriages is not the essence of making a family. Rather the reverse, since new solutions often underestimate the reproductive function of family.
The World Value Surveys conducted in 1990, 1999, 2008 examined the system of values all over the world and among others the values concerning everyday life were examined too. Research of the same kind was also conducted in Europe. The results show the family as the most important value. «In the year 2000 it was listed as very important by 84% of Europeans and 92% of Poles. In 2008 the proportion was slightly lower in Poland and it stood at 87%. Most people in Poland accept the traditional vision of family based on stable and lasting marriage in which having children is very important. The role of women in rearing children is stressed, parents make sacrifices for their children and children obey their parents.
Nevertheless, demographic research often shows cases of conjugal relationships, more divorces and extramarital children, delayed marriages and having children as well as limiting the number of children, particularly in the middle class. Research also shows unstable relationships, single parenthood and child abandonment, particularly in lower classes. Traditional patterns followed by Poles do not let them cope with changing reality. The results of survey from 2008 show an erosion in accepting traditional patterns. The opinion that marriage is obsolescent became more popular (6% in 1990, 9% in 1999, 18 % in 2008). The opinion that the woman does not need to have children to have her full value also gained popularity (25% in 1990, 29% in 1999, 44% in 2008). The value of contacts with friends and acquaintances, with people who are not family
members also increased in Poland (19% in 1990, 28% in 1999, 38% in 2008. In this category Poland got closer to European levels which were previously much higher than in Poland» [2, p. 9].
This way of perceiving and understanding the role of family results from the changes taking place. The first kind of changes is described as global civilization processes. They are connected with dominating standards of modernity and rationality developed in Western countries. The second kind of changes refers to historical processes which caused both cultural differences and religious divisions in European countries. The third kind refers to political transformations which in the twentieth century caused different historical experiences in different parts of Europe. The fourth one refers to the process of uniting Europe [2, p. 9]. The conditions listed above would not be complete without two more factors which are essential for me as far as perceiving the family goes. First, the material context which guarantees security for its members. Second, the society becoming more and more secular. Religious life is in decline and religious practices are turning into rituals. They help the church be considered an institution of authority, but they do not help individuals aiming at material success in their everyday life.
Social and political changes influenced the way families are perceived both as an organization and their role in society. On the one hand we can see informal partnerships which are like families to some extent, following universal rules but not legalized. On the other hand research shows more pairs getting married from 2005. Moreover, single parenthood and single mothers are no longer condemned. Single parenthood was not only socially accepted, but became an asset if the single parent is successful in his efforts. Apart from that, well-educated women climbing the career ladder, independent, ambitious and successful do not want to be bound with their partners, do not want to have a formal relationship, but do not object to having children. Such attitudes are not in line with traditional families, but they are a reality. One child or more children and one parent or an informal relationship with a child or children are common nowadays. It results in the role of father becoming marginal. In contemporary times and conditions the attitude to family is high in the ranking of values and this is positive. Some forms, however, are disapproved or even condemned for ideological reasons. The forms are the following: cohabiting, contraceptives, abortion, in vitro fertilizing and same-sex partnerships adopting children. Nevertheless, some changes are visible in these fields too.
The traditional family becomes an arena where the individual acts. It shapes and lives in circumstances. It becomes a retrospect and a goal. It aims at increasing the role of man as a person responsible for survival and the role of woman as a homemaker and guardian for her children. In addition, the family is perceived as a place to keep orphans in the family circle. Children's homes and
foster care are aimed at showing orphaned children aspects of family life and parenthood and helping them function in society.
Opinions concerning the restoration of traditional family model vary in societies, the major objection being that it would considerably limit the women's professional opportunities and their pastimes.
The examples presented show that the value of family should not be forgotten in politics either. This is the case when we analyze the society in which about 90% of citizens declare Christian worldview. The family is a universal value and a basic organizational form. It is sanctioned by free will and human rights. The solutions accepted by states must reflect social trends and preferences.
Irrespective of all the social, economic and political changes taking place in Poland, the family is perceived as an essential collective value. It does not matter how many members it has, where they live or how educated the family members are. Until 2006 the family model with the father, the mother and the child was considered the prevailing one.
In communist Poland the model which was developed was a structural one: 2+2, which meant two parents and two children. This solution was important not only in theoretical models, but also in demographics. Even in the nineties 50% of the population favored this solution, but with the new millennium the situation gradually changed [6, p. 2]. The family is perceived in a wider context. It is not only about kinship but also affinity. However, the perception of family nowadays does not show tendencies for making big families.
Redefining- a married couple with children. Because of a number of criteria «a vast majority of Poles (89%) think that a single mother or father rearing a child or children is also a family. Most people (71%) also state that an unmarried couple living together and rearing children together are also a family. 67% of the people consider married couples without children as families» [8, p. 12]. It should be stressed that the family is seen in a narrow meaning of this word because for most people it should consist of at least two persons, i.e. a single mother or father rearing a child or children. This attitude results from a high percentage of divorces and from decisions to rear children alone made by financially independent women. Opinions expressed by young women often approve of having a child without husband.
«It seems that at least one of the following conditions must be met to fit into the definition of family in its social sense. There must be a union of two people of opposite sex, it must be legalized or the couple must rear a child or children together. People who have an informal relationship and rearing children together are considered a family by almost three quarters of the persons in survey (71%). A slightly lower proportion (67%) would call a married couple with-
out children a family. Most of the people in survey would not call a couple having an informal relationship without children a family» [8, pp. 13 - 14]. Other forms are generally not approved of. Same-sex unions are not considered families even if they rear children. Because of legal regulations in Poland, same-sex marriages are not permitted and same-sex unions are often ostracized (see tab. 1).
What kind of relationship between people would you consider a family? Which one would you not consider a family? Do you think that a family is made of: Yes No It's hard to say
- a married couple with children? 100 0 0
- a single parent rearing a child or children 89 9 2
- people who are in an informal relationship rearing a child or children 71 25 4
- a married couple without children? 67 31 2
- people who are in an informal relationship without children 26 69 5
- a same-sex partnership rearing one partner's child or children 9 85 6
- a same-sex partnership without children 6 90 4
At the end of the decade the family model which is preferred in Poland is the so called small family, i.e. parents and children. «Half of Poles (50%) declares that they live in this kind of family. One fifth (21%) make bigger families including grandparents, parents and children. 9% of Poles live on their own in one-person households. The proportion of families which consist of couples without children is the same (9%). Six in a hundred Poles are in informal relationships with partners of the opposite sex (6%). Just 2% are single parents with a child or children. 1% live in temporary relationships with a person of opposite sex. Other forms of relations stand at 2%.» [10, pp. 6-7].
The new approach is favored by people with higher education, living in cities over 500,000 inhabitants, managerial positions and not religious. It should be noted that even the part of society described above, which is the most liberal part, does not use the word "family" for people without children or same-sex unions. It may be concluded that the following two types prevail: small families: an adult person and a child; narrow approach: a man, a woman and a child.
* Source: Potrzeby prokreacyjne oraz preferowany i realizowany model rodziny, Badania CBOS // BS/52/2006, Warszawa 2006.
The traditional family model includes not only about the way the family is built, but also about relations between the people in it. In this approach the husband works and makes money for the family and the wife is a homemaker and looks after the children. In the year 2000 the proportion of people in survey who were in favor of this solution was 50%.
The second kind is a partnership. Everybody works sharing housework and looking after the children (41% in 2006). At the same time the support for traditional solutions between adult family members fell to 32%. The solution in which the woman works professionally and looks after the household and children with the man marginally engaged in household duties is called a mixed model. It does not have a big support either (24%).
«The preferences concerning family and marriage models are often different from practical sharing duties in Polish families. In reality the mixed model is applied in more families (26%) than the traditional model (23%) or the partnership model (19%). Other models and situations are quite frequent» [8, p. 3]. «It is favored by younger people - up to 24 years old (53%) including high school and college students (60%) as well as inhabitants of big cities with over half a million inhabitants (53%), respondents with high school education (50%) or college education (53%). As far as the traditional model of marriage and family goes, it is favored by respondents who are between 55 and 64 years old (43%) and older (48%), respondents from villages (40%), respondents with elementary (46%) or vocational education (40%) and respondents from low income families (44% below 300 zt per capita a month)» [8, p. 6].
Women began to be involved in working professionally. This tendency became conspicuous in the nineties and had its consequences in emancipating women even further. Men began to look for freedom, but if they make a decision to have a family, the models applied are partnership models where the husband and the wife share household duties. As far as women's involvement in professional life goes, the following "economic family models" may be listed: «The most popular model in Poland is the one where the woman works professionally and does traditional housework of every homemaker, wife and mother. This model is very popular with people under 40 years old and this is the way one third of respondents declares duties are shared in their families or relations (32%) . In these families or relations both the husband and the wife or partners work professionally. The man, however, spends much more time working and the woman looks after the household and children. The second most popular model in this group is the traditional model in which just the husband or male partner works and makes money and the wife (female partner) is a homemaker. About one in four respondents stated that this was the model which best de-
scribed the situation in their families (26%). Nearly one in five respondents (19%) declared the partnership model where both partners work professionally and share household duties equally. Just one family in fourteen (7%) stated that the way duties are shared is reversed in comparison to the traditional one (the reversed model). In these families or relations the woman is the only person who works and makes money or spends more time working and the male partner does household duties» [11, p. 7] - (see the chart below).
Traditional model 26%
(Only the husband works and the wife is a homemaker and she rears children)
Mixed model 32%
(Both spouses work professionally, but homemaking and child-rearing is done mostly by the wife )
Reversed model 7%
(Only the wife works professionally making enough money for the family and the husband does homemaking and child-rearing)
Partership model 19%
(Both the husband and the wife work and they share homemaking and child-rearing duties equally)
Contacts with family
It is also meaningful in assessing families how relations are maintained among its members. Making family ties closer results from the following factors: people live near each other, they are interested in the same things, they have interpersonal contacts, they spend time and holidays together, etc. Due to advanced communication systems, living far away is not an obstacle in contacting family members, no matter if they live in Poland or abroad. Flying by plane or driving for a few hours make meetings possible. Telephones, the Internet and facebook are very helpful too. They enable participants to see each other and even make them feel as if they were together. This factor is very meaningful. Because of the huge emigration wave which took place in the eighties and nineties of the twentieth century, the number of Poles working abroad is big and it is still increasing. It does not facilitate frequent contacts. The frequency of visits decreases when people make more money and start buying abroad. The lower
* Source: Postawy prokreacyjne Polakow, CBOS BS/004/2010, Warszawa 2010, p. 8.
the status abroad and the lower the education level, the more people want to stay in touch with their families back in their home country . The circumstances of meetings May be divided into two categories:
- occasional religious ceremonies, e.g. Christmas, Easter, family reunions such as weddings, christening, first communions, funerals;
- ad hoc ,i.e. accidental «what's up meetings».
The first category has very deep roots in Polish culture and family Christmas is not just a cliché in Poland. It has a very special atmosphere. In 2004 94% of respondents declared this way of spending time together, but more and more people spend their free time in the garden, grilling, picnicking or going to the woods for mushrooms.
«Most Poles meet their parents at least once a week (72%), grandchildren (62%) and children living on their own (60%). Smaller groups state that they see their in-laws just as frequently (47%), brothers and sisters (44%) and grandparents (36%). Personal contacts with other family members are less intensive. Since 1999 the layout of family ties has not changed, though contacts between parents and children living on their own have become less intensive» [9, pp. 1-2].
Meetings are essential. They let us know each other better and continue family tradition. They also teach young people respect their elders.
Why we value families
Understanding family as a special value has its roots in human emotions too. Security, mutual help, friendship, emotional ties, educational reasons, tradition and many other things make us consider the family as an oasis of some sort. We share our secrets and problems there and this is where we feel happy, loved and understood. (2% of respondents state that we need a family to be happy. Just six people in a hundred questioned (6%) are of the opinion that we most important can be just as happy without family [10, pp. 2-3] - (see the chart below).
Do you think that everybody needs a family to be really happy or do you think that it is possible to be equally happy without a family?*
Everybody needs a family
to be really happy 92%
It is possible to be equally
happy without a family 6%
It is hard to say 2%
* Source: Nie ma jak rodzina, CBOS BS/040/2008, p. 3.
Successful family life was listed as the number one of the things in everybody's life by 70% of respondents. So many people state that getting married, having children and successful family life determine if our life makes sense [7, pp. 4-6]. The value of family increases with education. The higher the education, the stronger the family ties. 80% of respondents had college education with a diploma. The ties are the weakest with people who have elementary education (60%). Similar results were obtained in 1997 and 1998. There is a common element between the individual's level of activity and social preferences.
The family is also a group of people we can count on particularly in difficult situations Better standard of living from 1997-2002 was not permanent. The crisis which took place in 2003 left its trace on the feeling of financial security (see the survey from 2003, CBOS). In these difficult situations close family members offered help again (43% in the survey from 20030.
In the non-material sphere help in looking after the children is given most of the time. Despite all forms of institutional help, looking after the children done by grandparents or other family members is appreciated. In 1997 80% of parents used this kind of help and in 2006 the proportion was 73% [8, 10]
Most people would like to find friendship in family contacts. Just 2% of respondents stated that they did not have any friendship ties with any family members. Others pointed out one person or more.
Summing up it may be stated that the family which has its deep roots in Polish society is the highest value for many people. The material sphere is very important because partners treat each other seriously and they are also serious about rearing children. For many people the decision to start a family results from secure situation in the material sphere. Possessing and gaining is seen as an instrument and a guarantee of material security for all family members. For 45% of the people between 18 and 45 years old it is very important to have a family and for the people between 18 and 34 years old it is very important to start a family. For the older group the family is seen as a structure which already exists and needs to be looked after in the material sense of this word. People with higher education and living in cities over 100.000 inhabitants stress the importance of family more frequently than others (51%). The material sphere is also important and this category is more frequently mentioned by wealthier people (40 % in the group over 1000 zt of income) than lower income groups 35-36% [12, p. 3].
Future ambitions were mentioned by the people who saw the family as one of major goals in everybody's life (40% of respondents). They considered finding an eligible partner with whom they would like to start a family, but in this aspect 2% declared that they would like to have children, but later. They would also like to give good education, a decent standard of living and good future. All of these were mentioned by 8% of respondents. Less attention was paid to rearing children. From the sociological point of view, the family gave a feeling of happiness, harmony, understanding and mutual help [12, p. 6]. For men the family is the number three in their list of priorities. For women it is considered the number one (44%). Assessing approaches and differences concerning the role of family in human life, it seems justified and rational that men feel responsible for other family members and they pay attention to material aspects, the job and education and on his foundation they would like to build happiness in their family. It may result from a very popular way of thinking. Some people think it is a stereotype, but others still believe that the man's basic duty is to bring bread for the family.
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