PhD, Niigata university of international culture and informatics


Sentence-final particles (syuujoshi) play a great role in Japanese speech. They are used to impart numerous types of meanings to the sentence; and these meanings clearly disclose a speaker's attitude towards the subject of utterance or towards the addressee. Though the omission of the sentence-final particles in most cases does not make the sentence ungrammatjcal, the damage to the meaning of the utterance as a whole is almost unavoidable.

The final position of the particles is the most distinctive feature, which helps to distinguish this class from others, especially from the interjectional particles (kantoojoshi). There are five interjectional particles which must be distinguished from the sentence-final ones only by their position in a sentence. They are sa, no, yo, na, ne. The other features of these two classes are the same.

Ano-ne, chyotto-ne, kimi-ni hanasi-ga aru-n-da-ga (ТА, 63). Hey, look here, I've got something to tell you...

Kono mae-no nichiyoobi-ni-sa, uchijyuu-de-sa, kaisuiyoku itta-no-sa (ТА, 63). Look here, my whole family went to the seaside last Sunday.

Omae-na, mukoo-ni Шага-па, yoku ayamattoke-yo-na (ТА, 63). When you go there, apologize in a proper way.

Wasi-mo-no, wakai koro-wa-no, yoku nonda-mon-da (ТА, 63). When I was young I used to drink a lot too.

Ikura syoogatsu-demo-yo, sonna-ni nomu-na-yo (ТА, 63). Don't drink so much, even if it's a New Year party.

Most of the sentence-final particles normally follow the final predicate forms, plain or polite, but in informal speech they may be tacked on to the various types of shortened forms with a dropped copula or verb:

Нога, dare-kasira (SG, 40). Have a look, who's that?

Anta-ga yorokonde-kureta-node, atasi-wa manzoku-yo (SG, 43). You are pleased, and that's enough for me to be satisfied.

Chotto matte-tteba (KD, 670). Wait a little I say!

This leads us to say that in some cases sentence-final particles accompanied by an appropriate intonation can substitute copula or V-predicate.

Variants and sequences of particles

In modern Japanese there are more than 30 final-sentence particles and approximately one third of them have phonetic variants. They are produced in four ways:

(1) Lengthening final vowel (2) Contraction of vowel (3) Reduplication of initial consonant (4) Reduction of one or two open syllables.

(1) Lengthening the final vowel may be seen in na (naa), ne (nee), zo (zoo), teba (tebaa):

Omae-san, monooboe-ga ii-naa (KR, 132). You've got a good memory! Taihen-na sawagi-da-nee (KR, 122). What a fuss is kicked up, isn't it? Koheiji-don-ga kura-o yabutta-zoo! (SG, 118) Koheiji has broken down a warehouse!

(2) Examples of contracting vowels are produced by mono (топ), monoka (топка), monode (monde), noni (nni):

Datte, are-sika kaenai-n-da-mon. (SG, 73) But this is the only thing I can buy.

Wakaranakute-mo kamau-monka. (NV, 75) (I do) not understand, but I don't care.

Nani-ka katte-itadakitai-monde. (KR, 125) But I would like you to buy something from me...

Dakara, iikagen-ni sitoke-tte itta-nni. (ТА, 60) And didn't I tell you not to go beyond the limits?

(3) Variants resulted from reduplication of initial consonant may be seen in teba (tteba), tara (ttara), to (tto). It is also possible to regard them as variants with a suppressed initial consonant. The suppression occurs when teba and tara immediately follow the forms ending in nasal —n.

Nee, oka-san-tara! li-desyoo? (KD, 593) Well, mom! May I?

Ikenai-yo! Ikenai-ttara! (KR, 10) Don't do it! You can't do it, I say!

To with the meaning of the hearsay report is pronounced with a double initial consonant for greater emphasis:

Syachyoo-san-ga go-byooki-desu-to. (ТА, 53) I was told that the president was ill.

Tsumaranai-kara, moo kaeroo-tto. (ТА, 54) It's boring, let's go already.

(4) Reduction of the open syllable is presented in one particle — keredomo (keredo, kedomo, kedo):

Watakusi, simbun-de gokai-o toite-kudasai-tte o-negai-simasita-wa. Keiji-san-mo soo itteta-keredo (SG, 24) I asked to clear up this mistake through the newspaper. And the police officer told the same...

Sakki, itido, koko-e kita-n-da-kedo (SG, 24) I've lately been here once...

Phonetic variants presented in (2) — (4) differ from their origins only in the convenient articulation of less polite speech, while the difference in (1) is also supported by greater emphasis. Since not only lengthening the vowel but also reduplicating the consonant is the most common way to emphasize speaker's feelings, ttara is often more emphatic than tara, tteba is more emphatic than teba and tto expresses deeper emotion than to.

The less polite the speech the more chances for shortened variants in

(2) — (4) to turn up. You do not run across them in a very polite speech.

In colloquial Japanese sentence-final particles often follow each other forming the sequences of particles. Sometimes they are used to strengthen determination or other feelings of a speaker, sometimes — to soften the tone of a speech. The usage of the particle string in place of a single particle widens the expressive abilities of the sentence in both cases.

Particles within the sequence have the same meaning as in a single use. The meaning of the whole sequence is never idiomatic. Such sequences can be found mostly in everyday, less polite conversations between intimate friends or in the speech directed from superiors to subordinates and juniors.

There are three groups of particle sequences different from each other in their usage.

The first group consists of very stable, regularly used particle sequences, such as: ka-i, ka-na, ka-ne, ga-na, ga-ne, wa-i. All these particles (except wa-i with a strong archaic flavor) are widely used in the modern language and included in the dictionaries. In 'Big Dictionary of the Japanese Grammar' you can find only two of them, which were often used in old times — ga-na and wa-i [4]. 'Kojien' dictionary describes four particle strings: ka-na, ka-i, ga-na, ga-ne [6]. In 'Daijiten' dictionary four sequences of particles can also be found, but they do not coincide with the above-mentioned: ka-na, ka-ne, ga-na, wa-i [2]. Recently edited 'Kokugo daijiten' describes the meaning of ka-i, ka-na, ga-na, wa-i [5]. Thus, there is no dictionary to include all six of the above-mentioned particle strings. The number of the described strings varies from two to four, and there are no two dictionaries to give descriptions of the same ones. Ga-na is the only particle string to be found in four dictionaries; wa-i is included in three dictionaries. Perhaps, it may be explained not only by the regular conjoint use of these two pairs of particles, but also by some traditionalism in composing language dictionaries, because both were often used in the language of Edo period.

The second group of particle strings is frequently used in contemporary speech. They are not so common as the first group of six strings and you can not find them in dictionaries of Japanese language, but they are regular enough to be treated as markers of everyday informal speech. They are koto-yo, ka-tte, datte-sa, to-sa, na (prohibitive)-yo, na (pr.)-yo-na, na (imperative)-yo, na (imp.)-yo-na, no-ka, no-ne, no-kasira, no-yo, yo-na (exclamatory), wa-ne and wa-yo.

The third group is the most numerous one. It consists of about 60 consequences of the sentence-final particles; most of them are very occasional. The meanings of these particles are very abstract and can hardly be identified outside the concrete sentence. The motives and purposes of their usage depend more on the extra-linguistic situation and speaker's personal habits than on common speech regulations. Among them are kamo-na, kasira-ne, kara-sa, kke-na, kedo-na, tteba-yo, tomo-sa, noni-ne, monka-i, yara-ne, wa-sa and others.

Being used in consequences, the sentence-final particles show different properties in order of appearance. A string normally consists of

two or three particles. You can come across four-particle strings, such as no-ka-tte-sa, no-ka-to-ne, no-ka-tteba-yo, but they all have no in the first position (closest to the preceding predicate). It should be regarded more as a grammatical marker of adnominalization than an emphatic particle.

Let us state the closest position to the predicate as the first and two following positions as the second and the third ones.

Most of the particles used together in the string can only take the first position. It is correct for the particles derived from conjunctions, such as da, kara, kuseni, kedo, tte, to, tara, teba, ni, noni, monode and for kke, koto, datte, tomo, na (pr.), na (imp.), no, mono, ya, wa. It seems that there are no limits for usage of the particles with interrogative or indefinite meaning, such as ka, kasira, kamo, yara in the first position. As for the second position, they can be found there only if they immediately follow no (no-ka, no-kasira, no-kamo, no-yara are very common).

Particles /, e, sa, na, ne, yo can be used both in the first and second positions. Infrequently used and archaic e can only take the second position after interrogative ka (softening question or request with ka-e). Particle / can be seen there only after ka, na, wa. Sa, ne, na, yo are used in the second position more often than other particles. For example, ne can be found in this position exactly after most of the sentence-final particles, and sa, na, yo can directly follow about half the rest of the particles.

Only ne, sa, na, yo, i can appear in the first, second and third position. Particle e can only be seen in the second pr third position, but not in the first one.

Several final particles cannot be used in sequences at all (ze, ya, noo). Some of them don't permit direct following by others (na (em.), ne). Only one final particle is allowed directly after kasira (ne), after sa (ne), after zo (yo), after tomo (sa), after yara (ne), after imperative na (i).

There are a few triple sequences of particles with regular usage. Among them are na-yo-na (first na expresses negative command (prohibitive) and the last na is exclamatory), na-yo-na (first na is imperative), wa-yo-ne, ka-i-na. You will frequently come across them in informal speech:

Iwareta toon yari-na-yo-na. (NS) Just do as you were told, (order, male speech)

Tobokeru-na-yo-na (TA, 59) Stop fooling me. (negative command, male speech)

Iku-wa-yo-ne. (NS) And I'll go. (decision of the moment, female speech)

Sore-ga doo-ka simasita-ka-i-na (NV, 83) (You) have fixed it up, haven't you? (question and supposition)

There are some more occasional triple sequences with no in the first position and the interrogative or indefinite particles in the second. The third position in such strings is often taken by fhe exclamatory or emphatic particles like e, i, na, ne, yo: no-ka-i, no-ka-na, no-ka-ne, no-ka-e, no-yara-ne, no-kasira-ne, wa-i-na, no-kamo-ne, no-kamo-yo, etc.:

Hontoo-ka-tte. Kimi, boku-o sin'yoo sinai-no-ka-i (KD, 640) What do you mean by 'really'? Don't you believe me?

Sore, miro. Sorori-sorori-to kita-wa-i-na (NV, 114) (Do come and) look at this! (They) came again!

The main rules for determining the order of the appearance of the sentence-final particles in the string are the following.

The more concrete meaning a particle has the more possible its appearance in the first position. This is well illustrated by particles derived from conjunctions (kuseni, noni, tomo, monde etc.). Particles supposed to express a speaker's dominance over a listener in a speech situation are also used exclusively in the first position. Such dominance can be represented by warning, threat, mockery, overbearing tone, etc. Among the final particles used for these purposes are ze, zo, tara, teba, tie, tto (not in all uses). The utterances of this type show a lot of determination and do not imply the continuation of the dialogue. There are some examples: '

Sikkan-to atama-ni irete iku-n-da-zo (NV, 93) Go and keep it in your


Ore-wa nenai-zo (KR, 27) I won't go to bed!

Ore-ga yobidasu-made, futari-tomo katte-ni dechya-ikenai-ze (KR, 88) You both, don't go out without permission until I call you!

Hayaku motte kinasai-tteba. Kikoenai-no? (KD, 670) Be quick, bring (it) here! Don't you hear?

Sate, soosoo sitsurei simasyoo-tto (TA, 54). Well, it's time for us to leave already.

Monku-bakari iu-na-tte (NS) Stop complaining I say!

On the contrary, the particles supposed to express personal feelings or emotions of a speaker which are not connected with 'being in charge' mood, are usually placed in the second or third position. As a rule, such utterances contain a strong request for confirmation and imply the continuation of the dialogue. Examples of these particles are na, ne, kasira, and in some cases even sa. Ne and na are particularly used as devices to involve both a speaker and a hearer in what is being said.

Maa, sukosi-zutsu nobiru jya-nai-no. Kinoko-kasira. (NV, 27) Oh my, it's growing little by little! It's a mushroom, isn't it?

Naze soo iu-ka, wakaru-daroo-na (NV, 69). (I think you) understand why I said so.

Oya, okasi-na koto-o iu-ne (KR, 124). What strange things you are saying!

Particles in the written and the spoken language

The usage of the sentence-final particles is a peculiarity of spoken Japanese and can rarely be found in the written language. The report of the National Research Institute of Japanese Language says that TV announcers have never used a single final particle during the period observed [3, 118]. There is only one particle, more or less regularly used in the written language (not in the announcers' speech). It's imperative koto:

Chyuugakkoo-ijoo-okinyuu-suru-koto (NS). Fill in this form beginning with junior high school (note in a form of curriculum vitae)

You can run across fimtted usage of final particles in some forms of both the spoken and written literary language, such as public speech,

newspaper articles, private correspondence, etc. But the most intensive usage of the sentence-final particles can undoubtedly be seen in everyday informal speech. The above-mentioned research report states that 73% of all utterances in this field end with the sentence-final particles. The most frequently used particle is ne, it turns up in 25% of all fixed utterances. It is followed by yo (14,8%), no (6,5%), ka (6%), wa (3%), tte (2%), na (1,8%), sa (0,6%). All other particles together mark 13,2% of all sentences in the colloquial speech [3, 118].

The most frequent usage of particles is found in the informal, less polite speech (so called 'plain style' futsuutai). You find fewer particles in more polite speech with stylization; they are even more rare in a very polite speech, especially in cases when an addressee is exalted.

Final particles in the male and female speech

It is a well-known fact, that there is considerable difference between the speech of men and women in Japanese. And one of the important factors to mention in view of this is the difference in usage of sentence-final particles. From that point of view all particles are clearly divided into four groups.

The first group is relatively small. It is represented by the particles normally used only in male or female speech. They are /, ze, ya, noo (male) and e, koto (exclamatory), kasira (female). It should be noted, that / has some limitations in usage, noo and e have an archaic flavor, and sometimes they all are treated as dialect variants [11, 914, 916, 967]. There are some examples:

Sizuka-ni siro-i (KR, 64). Be quiet! (male speech)

Are, maa, okasi-na dango-da-noo (NV, 177). Oh, what a strange dumpling! (male speech)

Doo-sita-no-da-e, Sankiti...? (GDD, 11) Sankichi, what's happened? (female speech)

Maa, yokatta-koto! (NV, 22) Oh, it's so nice! (female speech) Kon'ya o-ukagai-site-mo yorosii-koto? (ТА, 53) May I come and see you tonight? (female speech)

The second group consists of the particles mainly used in one of the speeches (male or female), but they are not unacceptable, though less common in the other. You can hear koto (imperative), sa, zo, na (imperative), na (prohibitive), na (exclamatory, second person directed), топка mostly in men's speech. They can also turn up in women's language, but with some restrictions in distribution (fewer grammatical forms to be attached to), the person the utterance is directed to, or the like. Besides, there are some cases when the forms possible in men's speech are unacceptable in women's, for example, some rustic ones (V-ru-na-yo, V-ru-zo directed to the second person and others).

As for the particles common to female and uncommon to male language, kamo, mono and wa should be mentioned. The difference in the usage of the particles in the two languages lies: first, in the possibility or impossibility to follow certain grammatical forms immediately; and second, in the frequency of the appearance.

The third group consists of the fewest particles that can be heard both in men's and women's speech, but with considerable differences in usage. This difference is not related to the commonness in general, but determined by the rules of use in phrases or sayings of certain communicative type (making a request, asking a favor, giving an order or advice etc.) Ne, yo, no are the most frequently used. As they are common to various types of sentences, they can be used in many different ways with the slightest touches varying in wide range. For example, ne and yo in male speech are usually attached directly to the plain form of a copula da, while females insert a special marker of women's speech, an exclamatory particle we between da and ne or da and yo (da-ne, da-yo in male and da-wa-ne, da-wa-yo in female speech). Particle no is widely used by women in the affirmative, interrogative, imperative or even (with little archaic flavor) in the exclamatory sentences:

Rainen-mo arvbaito suru-no. (TA, 39) Next year I'll work part-time too. Rainen-mo arubaito suru-no? (NS) Are you going to work part-time next year too?

Rainen-mo arubaito suru-no. (NS) Next year you'll be working parttime too. (order)

Monooboe-ga ii-no! (NS) What a good memory (you have)!

As for men's speech, a final particle no sounds natural only in the interrogative sentence and normally is not used in others (not to confuse with noo, that can be heard from elderly men in the affirmative or interrogative utterances directed to subordinates or youngsters:

Aa, yoo-wa mada kadoo-ni kurai-noo. (KR, 285) You see, I'm quite a dilettante in the poetry.)

Na and zo also have different usage in male and female speech. A man may use zo both in self-directed and second person directed speech, while in women's language the latter usage is not permitted. In other words, a woman can use this particle only when speaking to herself:

Ara, tokei-ga ugoite-inai-zo. (NS) Oh my, the watch has stopped! (self-directed, female speech)

Tsumari, gusya-to ieba, o-mae-no koto-da-m. (KR, 94) Shortly, it's you to be called a fool (second person directed, male speech).

The exclamatory particle na is widely used in men's language without any restrictions. It appears both in self-directed or second person directed utterances while in women's speech the latter usage is only acceptable with the softening touch of the honorific-styled forms.

Atena-o wasurenu-yoo-ni sinakuchya. Wakatta-na. (NV, 93) Don't forget the address. Is it clear? (male speech)

Ittai, sonna-ni mainichi, doko-e iku-no-desyoo-na. (GDD, 127) I wonder, where does she go everyday? (female speech)

Sumimasen-ga, chyoito mukoo-e ittete o-kure-nasai-na (KR, 60). Excuse me, can you move along, please, (female speech)

Another feminine usage of na addressed to the second person is possible in a particle string making a sentence more hesitant by adding particles ka (after negative forms), da, kedo, suggesting a negative expectation, real or feigned. Such circumlocutions are only permitted in informal speech:

Atasi, muh-da-to omou-kedo-na (SG, 69). I don't think I can do it, but... (female speech)

The fourth group is the most numerous one. It is represented by the particles widely used both in men's and women's speech without essential difference. They are added to the same grammatical forms, occur in the same communicative types of utterances with the same or similar meaning. Most of these particles have been obviously derived from the other auxiliary classes — conjunctions, emphasizing particles, suffixes etc. They are g^ kara, kedo, kuseni, kke, datte, tte, to, tomo, ni, yara.

Just as single particles, the double and triple sequences of the particles also have some noticeable differences in male and female speech.

Among the most frequently used ka-i, ka-yo, koto-sa, sa-ne, na(pr. )-yo, na-(imp.)-yo, na-yo-na (both with prohibitive and imperative na), manna, monka-i, wa-sa turn up almost exclusively in men's language.

Such particle strings as datte-sa, tte-sa, kuseni-na, tomo-sa, kedo-na, wa-i and some others with sa and na in the second position seem to be used more by men, than by women.

On the other hand, there are exclusively feminine sequences, such as ka-e, kasira-ne, koto (excl.)-yo, no-ne, no-yo, no-kasira, no-yo-ne, mono-ne, wa-yo, wa-yo-ne, mono-yo, and some others.

Numerous particle strings are used both in men's and women's language without noticeable difference: ka-tte, ka-naa (self-directed), ga-ne, kedo-ne, kuseni-ne, tte-ne, ka-ne, ka-na (self-directed), datte-ne and many others.

Not only sex, but the age of a speaker has great influence on the rules referring to the practical usage of particle strings.

The first thing to be mentioned is that an elderly woman can use less polite forms towards a wider circle of partners more freely than can younger ones. For example, the following particles are quite common among the elderly women: sa, noo, na (exclamatory, second person directed), na (pr.), na (imp.), nni (contraction of noni), топка, to-sa, wa-i, ka-i, monka-i, wa-sa and some others:

Chotto, sono tegami-o go-ran-na (ТА, 57). Hey, have a look at this letter, (request)

Maa, sonna ookina koe-o dasi-nasaru-na (KR, 154). Don't be so loud, (polite negative command)

Watakusi-ga donna-ni kuroo-site o-maetachi-o sodateteta-ka, wakaru-ka-i (NV, 88). Do you realize how difficult it was to bring you up? (question to the juniors)

Second, in the speech of the elderly (both men and women) there are more final particles and particle strings regarded as old-fashioned or dialectal in the modern language. They are noo, e, i and the sentence extensions with or without them (ja-noo, da-noo, ka-e, ka-noo, da-e, nasai-na (excl.), mas-па (pr.), \l-ru-i and some others).

Origins of the final particles

The sentence-final particles are divided into various types by their origins and by the way of derivation:

(1) particles with obscure origins (/, e, ka, na (excl.), ni, ne, ya, yo)

(2) particles derived from conjunctions (da, Kedo, to, noni, monode, kara, si etc.)

(3) particles that came from markers of adnominalization (no, mono,


(4) particles associated with other classes of auxiliary words, mostly modifying particles used within sentences (wa, yara)

(5) particles derived from a copula (datte)

(6) particles derived from suffixes»(kke, (t)tara, (t)teba)

Some particles have completely separated from the initial elements, others remain connected with them to various extent. For example, kamo is obviously shortened from the sentence extension ka-mo sirenai (ka-mo-wakaranai), particle mono-ka is a less polite variant of mono-desu-ka (or on the contrary, the sentence extension mono-desu-ka may be regarded as a more polite variant of the particle). The similar connection is found between a marker of adnominalization no and the final particle no.

It seems that there are some hesitations in identifying certain final particles derived from conjunctions. They developed as a result of the inversion of clauses in a complex sentence accompanied by leaving this sentence dangling. Such phrases are very common in female speech. The second part of the complex sentence (principal clause) is usually omitted because of its clearness to both a speaker and a listener or for other reasons. In this case conjunction added to the subordinate clause is found in place of the emphatic particle in the sentence-final position:

Nee-san-tte, okasii-no-ne. Da re-mo kaeru-nante iwanai-noni (SG, 47). (You are) so strange, sister. Nobody is leaving ...

Tookyoo-e-wa nanajuppun-ka? Jyooken-to-sitara saikoo-da-kedo...(SG, 68). 70 minutes to Tookyoo? It sounds very good...

In these examples noni and kedo have a slight touch of a linking device as if adjusting a preceding clause (dare-mo kaeru-nante iwanai and jyooken-to-sitara saikoo-da) to the following implied but not pronounced one. The point is that the implied clause, though obvious both to a speaker and a listener, can not appear without damage to the conversation. Regular appearance in this position leads to the formation of a new particle with the emphatic usage. The extent of loss of the conjunctional usage and meaning varies in different particles. To, ga, yara, kedo are identified as sentence-final particles, while si, kara, kuseni, noni, monode in the same usage are regarded as conjunctions. This approach does not seem to be appropriate, because the way of deriving emphatic particles from the linking elements is identical for each of them.

Final particles derived from conjunctions should carefully be distinguished from the particle-like usage of conjunctions in utterances with inverted order of clauses. In such utterances a subordinate clause normally precedes a principal one and ends with a conjunction connecting two clauses. When a principal clause is suppressed for some reasons, a conjunction is found in a position typical for a final particle at the end of a sentence:

Saa, tabe-nasai. Umai-kara (NV, 172) Well, help yourself. It's tasty.

A direct order of clauses may easily be restored with the same meaning of the phrase:

Umai-kara, tabe-nasai. Kara is a pure linking device, i.e. conjunction. Another example:

Inada-kun-wa mainichi kite-iru-ka? — Sugiko-san-kuru toki-wa kuru. — Konai toki-wa konai-no-ka? — Kuru hitsuyoo-ga nai-kara (MS, 128). Does Inada come every day? — (He) comes (only) when Sugiko does. — Doesn't (he) come when (Sugiko) doesn't come either? — There's no reason (for him) to come.

The remark 'that's why he doesn't come' in the last utterance is implied, but does not really appear. The end of the phrase is clear both to a speaker and a listener, but can not be pronounced. Otherwise, the answer which has already been given earlier in the indirect and incomplete form ('only when Sugiko does'), would be repeated twice. In this example the order of the phrases can not be changed without hurting the construction of the dialogue. This is the difference between these two examples and that's why kara in the latter one should be treated as a final particle, but not as conjunction.

The leads us to say that distinction between the particle-like usage of a conjunction and the usage of a final particle itself should be based on the possibility to restore the direct order of clauses together with preserving the meaning of the utterance.

Classification of the final particles

It is very difficult to classify the sentence-final particles because the most important features they can be classified by, vary widely in range. A number of different classifications are possible. One of them built upon semantic criteria divides aH particles into two groups: modal and emphatic particles.

Modal particles, in addition to their main function, also appear as grammatical markers modifying the modality of the whole sentence. They are obligatory in grammatical structure of the sentence; they are not separated from it and can not be omitted. As the next step, modal particles are classified by the meaning they impart, therefore six groups are distinguished:

(1) interrogative particles (ka, kasira, yarn)

(2) imperative particles (na (imp.), na (pr.), koto)

(3) particles softening the emphasis of the utterance (mb (fern.), ga, kamo, kedo, e)

(4) particles strengthening the emphasis of the utterance {yva (male), zo, ze, yo, i,

monoka, no, sa, tomo, ya) .

(5) contact-making particles (Wee, na (excl.), ne)

(6) quotation particles (datte, to, tte)

Emphatic particles are used to impart various additional hints of the speaker's attitude towards what he is saying or towards a listener. Contrary to modal particles, emphatic particles are not obligatory, they are separated from the sentence, and they may be dropped without damaging its grammatical structure. Emphatic particles are quite homogeneous, they are not divided into smaller groups. Then they are described one by one separately.


ТА — Tanaka Akio. Bummatsu, kumatsu-no hyoogen-to gohoo. — Nihongo, nihon bunka. Oosaka gaikokugo daigaku kenkyuu ryuugakusei bekka. 1977, 6, p.37-71.

SG — Aoe Syunjiro. Seinen gekijoo hitomaku gekisyuu. Daisansyuu. Miraisya. 1970

KD — Gaikokujin-no tame-no kihongo yoorei jiten. Bunkatyoo. 1983. KR — Okitsu Kaname. Koten rakugo (ge). Koodansya bunko. 1972. NV — Hamada Hirosuke. Nihon-no waraibanashi. Kaiseisya. 1975. NS — example is checked by native-speaker.

GDD — Gendaigo-no joshi, jodooshi (Yoohoo-to jitsurei). Kokuritsu kokugo kenkyuujo hookoku, 3. Syuuei syuppan. 1980.

MS — Musyakoji Saneatsu. Musyakoji saneatsusyuu. — Gendai bungaku taikei, 20.Tookyoo. 1975


1. Gendaigo-no joshi, jodooshi (Yoohoo-to jitsurei). Kokuritsu kokugo kenkyuujo hookoku, S. Syuuei syuppan. 1980.

2. Daijiten. Heibonsya. 195S-1954.

S. Danwago-no jittai. Kokuritsu kokugo kenkyuujo hookoku, 8. Tookyoo, 1955.

4. Matsumura Akira. Nihon bunpoo daijiten. Meiji syoin. 1971.

5. Nihon kokugo daijiten. Syogakukan. 197S.

6. Simmura Izuru. Koojien (dainihan). Iwanami syoten. 1975.

7. Suzuki Hideo. Gendai nihongo-ni okeru syuujoshi-no hataraki-to sono syousetsu-ni tsuite. — Kokugogaku ronsetsu siryoo, S. 1976, 1S. P.18S-189.

8. Tanaka Akio. Bummatsu, kumatsu-no hyoogen-to gohoo. — Nihongo, nihon bunka. Oosaka gaikokugo daigaku kenkyuu ryuugakusei bekka. 1977. 6. P.S7-71.

9. Utio Kumi, Okamura Kanoko. Joshi sooran. — Hinsibetsu nihon bumpoo kooza, 9. Joshi. 197S.

10. Ueno Tazuko. Syuujoshi-to sono syuuhen. — Nihongo kyooiku. 1972. 17. P.62-67.

11. S.Martin. A Reference Grammar of Japanese. Tookyoo, 1987.

А. Ф. Прасол

О некоторых особенностях заключительных частиц в японском языке

В статье рассматриваются некоторые общие особенности заключительных модально-экспрессивных частиц японского языка. Эти служебные элементы имеют широчайшее употребление в устной, главным образом, неформальной речи и используются для выражения самых разнообразных значений модально-экспрессивного характера. В статье затрагиваются вопросы происхождения и употребления частиц в устном и письменном вариантах японского языка, а также их грамматические, стилистические и модально-экспрессивные особенности в мужской и женской речи, а также в речи пожилых японцев. Приводятся правила, определяющие порядок их следования в составе сочетаний частиц и возможности совместного употребления друг с другом и с различными формами сказуемого. Предлагаются общие принципы классификации и описания заключительных частиц.