AS A BASIS FOR DISCUSSION
INTER-HEMISPHERICAL ASYMMETRY OF BRAIN AS PSYCHOLOGICAL MECHANISM OF POST-NONCLASSICAL ETHNIC PICTURE OF THE WORLD OF PERSONALITY IN THE CONDITION OF EURO-ASIAN SITUATION 1
Sanzhaeva R.D., Dondukov S.Ts., Monsonova A.R., Bazarova D.R.
Changing of centuries, even thousands of years, never passed without any crisis for the mankind. Not touching with social-economical cataclysms, speaking about psychology, it can be said about the permanent crisis of West-oriented psychology and of circulation to psycho-technical and spiritual experience of oriental cultures, where the attitude of the person to the world and nature was notable for special yearning for the accord of nature, for himself, for unique agreement in the space of the Great cosmos. The world is the systemic attitude of the person to the world, the image of peace-organization, the creation of the picture of peace in the person’s soul which is achieved owing to ancient ceremonies, rituals and traditions.
In the beginning of the XXIst century we feel the rapprochement of the East and the West: actions and contemplation; intuitive and logical, humanitarian and natural styles of thinking; modern theoretical physics and ancient oriental studies.
F. Kapra, physicist and philosopher, the author of the famous book “Dao of Physics”, made a valuable contribution to overcoming of mechanical classical picture of the world (the idea of progress, seizure of nature), to the development of non-classical paradigm of cognition when subjective image of the personality is considered. The picture of the modern person’s world differs for the transition to relativity: from objects to attitudes between objects, from the cult of determination to unsynonymous and uncertainty, from unity to plurality of interpretations.
The future is after post-nonclassical picture of the world in which the main paradigm is net principal of the organization of knowledge, net conception J. Chu, the
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Computer Net - Internet. The main peculiarity of net paradigm in post-nonclassical physics is the lack of true improvements. F. Kapra in the book “Lessons of wisdom” shows the net conception of J. Chu who is famous of the third revolution in physics: his “bootstrap” (from English “bootstrap” - the raid of inner connections) theory of fractions united quantum mechanics and the theory of relativity in a special way. Chu considered the science of Future to be the mosaic of crossing theories and models of “bootstrap” type. None of them would be more fundamental than the others, and all of them must be well-conformed.
Thinkers with this point of view had been working in philosophy, psychology, culturology. These are V. Jemez with the idea of “stream of mind” and “pluralistic thoughts”; K. Yung with archetypes; A. Maslow, I. Kheizing, X. Ortega and others.
During some centuries eastern mystics studied the characteristics of different conditions of thoughts, and those conclusions which they had had radically differ from western ideas. But the picture of the world which was got with the results of subatomic physics seemed wonderfully to be similar with the spiritual experience of the East. F. Kapra writes: “One day I was sitting on the shore of the ocean and, listening to the rhythm of my breath, was watching how the waves covered the shore and stepped back to the ocean, - and suddenly I realized that everything which surrounded me took an active part in a grandiose cosmic dance... I felt the stream of energy from an open cosmos in which with rhythmical pulsation (underlined by us) appeared and disappeared things; I felt the rhythm of this dance and “heard” its sound, and at this very moment I KNEW that it was
1 article is prepared for publication with support of RSSF Grant, Project № 01-06-202a
Shiva - Lord of Dance, revered by hinduists”. [6.C.9]
For many years F. Kapra compared dances of stars (cosmic dance) with dances of atoms (energetic dance) and made the conclusion that modern physics considered Shiva’s dance like a dance of subatomic matter. Today the portrait of Universe in its cosmic Dance was got with the help of very complicated devices. The photographs of bubbled camera allowed the people to see that the Universe was constantly undergoing changes of rhythmical creation and destruction like any human life which was the complicated part of general rhythmical process of creation and destruction, birth and death.
One of the highest people’s aims in spiritual traditions of the East is the understanding of the fact that all opposites have polarities, so they are a single whole: good and evil, gain and loss, light and dark; they are only different objects of the same phenomenon. The struggle between them can’t be finished with the victory of one opposition and will be the show of their interaction. So in the East virtuous man is called not that person who put the unrealizable aim to struggle for peace and destroy evil but the person who is able to keep the dynamic balance between the good and the evil. This matter of dynamic balance plays a keen role in eastern psychology as one of the leading studies of Buddhism about the “middle way”. It is not the immovable stable equality but the dynamic interchange of two extremes. The best expression this example got in the symbolic archetypical pairs of contrary beginnings: In and
human nature. Eastern mysticism speeds to develop these conditions of consciousness and put a balance between two sides of human soul. Due to words of Lao-Tszi that man realizes himself in the best way that “cognizes manful one but nevertheless remains feminine one”.
In modern native psychology V.G. Leontyev worked out the conception of psychological mechanisms of motivation of the activity in 2002. In the basis of new ideas there is the notion of initial generalized mechanism which is an important link with all other motivated mechanisms. This mechanism was called the mechanism of dynamic balance. The analysis of organic, exchange processes showed that unbalanced state in some system always appeared after the achievement of the balance in the other one which is connected with the first one. M.A. Kotik (1989) considered the appearance of the interest in the exact sphere on the basis of the mechanism of dynamic balance, and it schematically looked like an activation of the nervous system of the subject of activity for the attainment of the aim connected with emotions of anxiety which interchanged with emotions of success when subject’s field of information achieved the necessary level. This process will be repeated till the subject would study to have all essential quantities of the system in definite bounds.
The theory of English psychologists M. Apter and K. Smith makes the connection between the level of a subject’s activation and his hedonismical tone. They formulated their ideas in the theory of the reverse of the activity according to which it was possible to take up the organism from one system of regulation to the other one during the realization of
According to M.J. Apter human discrepancy that can be appeared at one psychics has “inner inconsistency and inner moment in the desire of some event and the
person experiences happy agitation but at the other moment - in the escape of the same event. The same picture can be seen in all the spheres of our life. At one moment some pursuit is a burdensome obligation but the other moment - like a creative game. So there is inner self-reversibility, switching of processes (the inversion) which determine changes and difficulty of man’s behaviour. (1987, p. 164-165). So in conformity with motivation the “system of escape” of activation and the “system of search” of activation can be changed. And the hedonismical tone that is the happy agitation and the relaxation of anxiety can be changed at any level of activation. In accordance with these facts the principle of switching of the processes and conditions of the person is the basis of the theory reversibility. It underlines the fact there are some alternative systems in the psychics and the reverse appeared from the unity of opposites in these systems.
F. Kapra connects opposite notions in the accordance with the example of the unity of notions “waves” and “particles” in physics. In nature there are no fractions which could move undulatingly. The excitation of the surroundings which provokes the appearance of the wave, but not the material fractions, move with the wave. Undulating process is the manifestation of the fraction by itself. On the surface of the water in the wave molecules don’t move with the wave but revolve on their axis during the passing of the wave.
The Eastern mystics think in this way when they try using their perception of the reality without any opposition. Lama Govinda said: “Probably eastern way of thinking comes to going round the object of contemplation. Polygonal, i.e. multilateral, perception moulds with the help of superposition of a single feeling from different points of view”. That is why waves are not the same things as moving particles, like “the image about waves on the lake is far from the image about the shoal of fish moving in the same direction”.
In psychology these regularities can be examined on the example of the wave theory of personality of famous Russian psycho physiologist Professor G.A. Aminev (Ufa) . Probably many investigators-psychologists use Aminev’s quantitative factors to M. Lyusher’s
Nowadays in the governmental documents the wave modelling is recognized as the leading methodological instrument of perception. After methodological revelations of A. Puankare (1990) and L. De Beil (1986) it became in the science not the main one in the study of the Nature. Now nobody opposites the corpuscular approach to the wave one. Mathematics and physics especially after the discovery of silitones pay great attention unlinear regularities (Sh. Ma, 1980; Bishon, 1981; G. Hakek, 1985; M.I. Rabinovich, D.I. Trubetskov, 1986; A.V. Gaponov-Grekhov, A. S. Lomov, G.V. Osipov, M.I. Rabinovich, 1989; M. Remoissenet, 1996).
“The evolution of life is considered as the transition from the single waves to rhythmical structures” (L.A. Ostrovsky, 1989); it is necessary to remember the prophecy of Russian cosmist K.E. Tsiolkovsky (1993, p.277): “The real life is the wave”, writes G.A. Amiev. [3, p.9]
The wave approach successfully controls refractory problems of biophysics, biochemistry and microbiology (Yu.M. Romanovsky, N.V. Stepanova, D.S. Chernavsky, 1984; A. S. Davyidov, 1986; Ts.G. Babsky, 1989). We can’t say this about psychology: there are corpuscular models here. As G.A. Aminev fairly and with humour notices since the time when English psychologist and mathematician C. Spermen (1904, 1927) creates the famous formula of correlation, thousands of amateurs of searching the treasure in human souls found millions connections of properties with properties, revealed correlative connections, factors without asking the question why some characteristics of our psychics correlate and the others do not correlate between each other. (F.M. Allport, G.W. Allport, 1921; R.B. Cattell, 1950, 1971; R. Amthauer, 1953; H.J. Eysenck, S. Eysenck, 1964; V.S. Merlin, V.V. Belous, B.A. Vyatkin, E.I. Mastvilisker, 1973; and others).
The words “integration, clusters, radicals and so on” explains nothing if there are no concrete mechanism behind them.
Working in Kazan University G.A. Aminev with his colleagues studied the problem of psychological rhythms, and proved
the presence of two types of rhythms: temporal and tact. (G.A. Aminev, G.F. Sokolova, 1973). The work in the Centre of training for the aquanauts (Moscow) was interesting and productive; together with V.V. Truskalov they suggested the theory about norm rhythmical and disrhythmical person. Unfortunately this training for aquanauts was curtailed and it was worth of regretting when the tragedy with our submarines happened.
As testologist G.A. Aminev minimized, standardized almost all well-known psychodiagnostic tests; it was founded the original Ufim row of tests. Z. Freud З.Фрейд founded psycho-dynamic theory of the personality, R. Kettel - factor, and methods of wave psychodiagnostics realize their synthesis.
The wave theory is based on the following hypothesis: a psychic is intact, its characteristics correlate because they are wavy written down in the genome, energetic, cerebral and biochemical structures. This proposition can be presented in the state of two axioms:
1) if two characteristics correlate
between each other it is explained with the fact that they separately form similar wavy dynamics of correlates with the system of elements of an organism (and the brain in particular) presenting discreet or unbroken topologically regulated structures
(chromosome, power, electric-encephalic “lines”;
2) if two characteristics correlate they separately bind by the similar dependence in the form of a single full or degenerated wave with some elements of organism (brain) having unbroken levels of expressiveness (ferments, mediators, neiro-neptides etc.).
Like physics of quantum and wave processes allows to rise to the new level of understanding of characteristics of surroundings, gives the possibility to found principally new technologies for changing all the aspect of production and quality of people’s life, stimulates the development of new directions in medical diagnostics, biology, we can be firmly convinced that wave characteristics of personality open not only principally new aspects in psycho-diagnostics but also effective algorithms of neiro-pedagogical correction, effective selection of
personnel, methods of neiro-crimilogy and forencis-psychological commission, wave psycho-prophylaxis of histology, allergy, narcotism, onco- and mental diseases.
Life as rhythmical pulsation connected with the other important characteristics such as symmetry and asymmetry.
The discovery of symmetrical patterns in the world of particles brought physicists to the conclusion that these patterns were the reflection of fundamental laws of nature. During the last years efforts of many investigators were devoted to a search of the highest more “fundamental symmetry” which had been the characteristic feature for all the particles and could have helped the scientists to understand the principles of the structure of the matter.
Eastern philosophers assigned the symmetry absolutely another part.
Followers of Far-Eastern mystic traditions often use symmetrical patterns when meditation or as symbols, but the notion “symmetry” doesn’t play an important role in their philosophy. On the contrary as all notions it is considered to be the product of mental activity of the person but not to be inherent in the nature. Oriental art often uses asymmetrical lines and avoids all regular and geometrical forms. In the art of China and especially of Japan we not infrequently meet images in so called “style of one corner”: the position of stones in Japanese gardens is not obeyed to the rules of symmetry and that confirms one more time that the role of symmetry in Eastern culture appreciably differs from its role in European culture.
Asymmetry is peculiar not only to material world but to the idealized psychological sphere; it characterises social-cultural processes
Characteristics of post-nonclassical picture of the world side by side with classical and nonclassical ones refer to ethnic picture of the world.
Ethnic picture of the world (EPW) is the component part of social picture of the world, generalized systematic knowledge about the matter of ethnic processes in the world on the definite stage of ethno-genesis. There are all the processes which influence on the ethnic characteristic of inhabitants of the
region: demographic, social, political,
migratory, confessional and properly ethnic (consolidation, integration, assimilation, etc) in the notion of EPW.
Yu.A. Yevstigneev (1999), American sociologist S. Huntington and others mark that considerable influence for EPW gives the interaction of world civilizations - Western (Christian), Eastern-Slavian (orthodox), the Near Eastern (Islam), Far Eastern (Buddhism-Confucianism) and others.
World history testifies about the presence of two main types of ethnic species: devising and union of ethnos. Nowadays the tendency of ethnic community proves itself more greatly. As a result regional-civilized societies including either close or highly distant in ethnic relations are formed. This fact is characterized also for the Far East that allowed to marks out their civilized characteristics - socio-cultural unity of people, the form of historical development of the society, the result of social experience in the unity of material and spiritual aspects. In the centre of civilization there is a man as the subject of social activity, his spiritual culture, the way of life, the degree of humanisation of public life, the way of interaction of the society with nature. The type of historical development of the society forms the content of civilized process, and its form is corresponding to its level types of ethnos -nationalities, nations, regional supernational communities with their peculiar geopolitical characteristics, peculiarities of the language, culture, psychology, religion, political life which forms the mentality of ethnos.
Due to the translation from Latin “mentality” means “intellect, thinking, views, and spiritual quality”. The notion “mentality” was proposed by representatives of historical-psychological and cultural-anthropological trends L. Fevr, M. Block, L. Levi-Brul, K. Levi-Stross as the statement of the presence at subjects of national-ethnic and socio-cultural communities the definite common “mental instrument”, “psychological equipment” which promote original perception and realization of native and social and them themselves. A.A. Shumeiko underlines that “... mentality, which is notable for its heightened stability, accumulates in itself eternal values rendering
from generation to generation and consolidating in social-genetic code of nations, is the original protective mechanism of their cultures. All the components... of culture influence on mentality but technologically more straightforwardly, directly and relatively quickly this task can be decided with the sphere of education. The search of “technology” of mental transformations in socium is the most important problem of human civilization straightly connected with its surviving. The basis of this “technology” is seen rather definitely even now. It is in the sphere of spiritual life of the society, in the sphere widely understandable culture and quite concretely understandable education and upbringing” [16.P.52]. Such “technology”, such instrument of peculiarities of thinking is inter-hemispherical asymmetry of brain (IHAB). Phenomenon IHAB is the methodological basis of investigations in modern psychology and especially in psychophysiology. In the middle of the XXth century American neiro-psychologist R. Sperry was rewarded with the Nobel Prize for his works with broken-up brain. His researches showed that left hemisphere is specialized in operating with words and other conventional signs but right hemisphere is specialized in operating with images of real things and is also responsible for orientation in the space and for some emotional conditions. Left hemisphere activates in reading technical texts and right one in reading fiction (B.G. Ananyev, E.D. Khomskaya, V.V. Arshavsky, N.N. Bragina,
G. Deich, T.A. Dobrokhotova, E.A. Golubeva, V.P. Kaznacheev, E.A. Kostandov, V.M. Mosidze, V.S. Rotenbrg, E.D. Sokolova, S. Springer, R.D. Sanzhaeva and others). These differences are considerable in methods, strategy of processing of information historically turned out in cultures of western and eastern types. The scientists consider that the specificity of “right-hemispherical” thinking is the readiness to the whole “catching”, to a single-moment perception of things, facts and the world in whole with all its components. “Left-hemispherical” thinking connects with consecutive stepped cognition which brings analytical but not synthetic character. (Table 1)
Differences between cerebral hemispheres during optic perception
Left cerebral hemispheres Right cerebral hemisphere
Stimulus are known better
Simply distinguished Hardly distinguished
Tasks are une erstood better
Appraisal of temporal relations Appraisal of spatial relations
Establishment of resemblance Establishment of differences
Establishment of identity of stimulus Establishment of physical identity of stimulus
Transition to verbal codification Visual-spatial analysis
Peculiarities of processes of perception
Analytical perception Integral perception (Gestalt)
Successive perception Synchronous perception
Abstract generalized inversional recognition Concrete recognition
Suppositional morpho-physiological differences
Focused representation of elementary functions Diffusioned representation
Analysing the Table we can see that there are 5 main dichotomies of hemispherical dominatings at the personality: verbal-unverbal, time-space,
analysis-synthesis, successive-synchronous perception, abstract-concrete perception.
From the point of view of the theme of investigation it ought to pay attention to the fundamental work of V.V. Arshavsky “Inter-hemispherical asymmetry in the system of search activity” (1988) based on ethnic material of investigation of indigenous people of the North (Yakuts, Chukchi s, Escimos, Evens, Koryaks, Yukagiers, Chuvants). Results of V.V. Arshavsky and his collegues show that right-hemispherical type prevails at indigenous people of the North prevails, but at the same time newly come population have left-hemispherical type. It is explains with the fact that during all the period of previous history of the development indigenous people, only not long ago accustomed to the achievements of scientific-technical progress, were the civilization which used spatial-figurative type of perception and processing of information as much as possible. Left-hemispherical type prevails in populations with high level of social-economic development. Therefore the type of hemispherical domineering can be conditioned with culture. Results of many investigators show that the final type of hemispherical relations is settled not to the period of pubescence but approximately to the period of 10 years old. In the connection with this very actual problem of studying culture of not numerous peoples (in our case
- of the Far East and Kamchatka) is the problem of studying and educating children of indigenous people. School education must be formed with the regard of children’s prevailing method of the organization of the context. In the conditions of other culture the ignorance of these peculiarities in pedagogy can produce to overstating of the number of backward pupils and to hyperdiagnostics of mental backwardness. Since childhood the education to think in different co-ordinates, understand endless diversity of the world is the powerful reserve of our brain. The ability to polyphonical thinking is
the biological property of human brain which is stipulated with its structure and functional possibilities. The development of spatial-figurative thinking of left-hemispherical people and the development of logic-verbal thinking of right-hemispherical people will contribute to better understanding between
representatives of different cultures.
As to period of forming of inter-hemispherical differences the results of the investigation of V.V. Arshavsky confirms the facts of many authors that the lateralization of a child begins with the period of mastering of the language but it didn’t finish till the approach of puberty (Bryson S., Mononen L., 1980, Falcone D., Loder K.,1984, Lewandovskib, 1982 and others).
At early stages of ontogenesis the prevailing activity of right hemisphere is marked and this fact is natural so as an integral immediate perception of the world, the feeling of indissoluble connection with it is the primary and necessary condition of socialization of a child (T.A. Meshkova,
1982, I. Merola, I. Liederman, 1985). The persons with prevailing right-hemispherical type of reaction dominate among children of young age but at the age of 10 -14 years old
- with right-hemispherical type, and these aged changes depends on ethnic belonging of examinee to a considerable extent. The information of V.V. Arshavsky shows that the final type of inter-hemispherical relations is settled not to the period of pubescence but approximately to the age of ten. The process of acceleration of modern children, to our mind, raises the correlation between these two points of view.
The information of psychological investigations from the point of view of the category of gender: in most cases they allow to consider that among women there are more persons of right-hemispherical type than among men (V.A. Geodakyan, 1984, V.F. Konovalova, N.A. Otmakhova, 1984, C.H.Emest, 1983 and others), and that right-hemispherical and mixed types of reaction are peculiar to women (=31,16; P<0,001), at the same time left-hemispherical - to men (=59,77;P<0,001).
F. Blum, A. Leizerson, L. Hofetedter (1988) consider that at an average women excel men in verbal abilities but are inferior to them in mathematical and “space” abilities.
As these diagrammatical curves show though at an average verbal abilities develop better and “space” abilities - among men, nevertheless the differences are insignificant.
Also it was got a result that the specialization of men is expressed more than among women. Probably verbal and space functions of women are spread in both hemispheres to greater degree but at the same time men’s functions are strictly divided - verbal functions are in the left hemisphere and space functions are in the right hemisphere.
Considerable differences in the distribution of space abilities between hemispheres were revealed among boys and girls (Witelson, 1976). There were examined two hundred right-handed children of both sexes at the age from 6 to 13. They were said to take a thing of unusual form in every hand and to do manipulations with them. Then they were shown pictures of six things and asked which of them corresponds to the thing in their hands. The boy’s rate of the correct choice of the picture of a depicted thing which was in the left hand was considerably higher than the things in the right hand. The girls had the identical result with both hands. According to middle quantities sexual dimorphism is invariably exposed in the places when determinating coefficient of intellectual (IQ), and these differences are often revealed already in the childhood. Girls begin speaking and reading earlier than boys, and girls much more seldom have difficulties when training to read. Among children incapable of reading there are in four times boys more than girls (Blum, p. 153). The psycho-physiological explanation of this fact is probably in that larger sizes planum temporale in the right-hemisphere can be met among women more often (WadaetaL, 1975).
At the same time it is truly pointed that this explanation is not far full if we take into consideration that spatial-figurative type
of thinking dominates among the Japanese (V.S. Rotenberg, V.V. Arshavsky, 1984) as bright representatives of the East.
Some authors (R. Ornstein, 1978 and others) point out that in oriental cultures social connections are less complicated and broad than in western cultures. Thanks to this fact specificity of inter-hemispherical relations of representatives of different ethnic groups appears.
Hence it follows a well-known opposition between bright originality in poetry and other kinds of art and definite dependence in fundamental science. The overcoming of this dependence connects with the increase of self-consciousness and changing of the system of teaching. Special stress on linguistic and logical thinking providing the development of abilities of the left hemisphere ignores the abilities of the right one. As the bright example of this fact it can be shown the specificity of cultural development of Japan which is characterized by two oppositions. The inner opposition consists of pragmatic use of richness of polysemantic context which is a characteristic feature of the thinking of this nation. This opposition also demands larger development of such characteristic features of the personality (egocentrism, tendency to self-approval) forming of which connected with peculiarities of the opposite left-hemispherical style of thinking.
The outward (situational) opposition consists of some discrepancy of the system of education (more in the sphere of exact sciences) to peculiarities of potential creative abilities which are peculiar to the Japanese. This example shows that for original integration of cultures it is necessary to take into account ethnic peculiarities of thinking and world perception closely connected with the specificity of inter-hemispherical relations, especially with children.
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