CONDITIONS PROVOKING AGGRESSIVE DRIVING IN PERCEPTION OF DRIVERS AND ROAD TRAFFIC INSPECTORS
This article considers such a phenomenon like aggressive driving, which is the most dangerous violation, from the point of view of the road traffic safety. Analysis of the world statistical data shows the necessity of singling out young people, which manifest dangerous driving by car more often than other drivers and who are tended to road traffic traumatism the most. To improve work in this direction, it is required to understand, which conditions provoking aggressive driving exist in the perception of young people.
In this article the results are represented, which were obtained in the course of study with the help of Aggressive Driving Questionnaire (ADQ, Jenenkova). The number of participants of this study was 300 people, 150 of them were drivers, and 150 - road traffic inspectors. Drivers were represented by men at the age to 30 years.
Results of the comparative analysis show that generally male drivers under the age of 30 years, unlike the inspectors, are tended to see the following conditions of environment as provoking conditions: good road condition (p<.01), good weather
conditions (p<.01), impunity for violations (p<.01); use of alcohol, drugs (p<.01) etc. Factor analysis (KMO=.825) allowed singling out three factors as the factors provoking aggressive driving (Cronbach's Alpha = .853). The first factor (F_ 1 Cronbach's Alpha =.793) was connected with the conditions, which cause positive emotional background for the driver, the second one (F_2 Cronbach's Alpha = .793) - negative, the third one (F_3 Cronbach's Alpha =.745) - search for impressions, which is connected with
presence of a passenger of any sex in the car, as well as, under boredom or monotony, which may arise under the road conditions.
The study’s results may be applied in the informative and education field, including, during training at driving schools.
Keywords: aggressive driving; conditions provoking aggressive driving; drivers; young drivers; perception of drivers; road traffic inspectors; factors provoking aggressive driving; dangerous behaviour of drivers.
УСЛОВИЯ, ПРОВОЦИРУЮЩИЕ АГРЕССИВНОЕ ВОЖДЕНИЕ, В
ВОСПРИЯТИИ ВОДИТЕЛЕЙ И ИНСПЕКТОРОВ ДОРОЖНОГО
В статье рассматривается такое явление как агрессивное вождение, которое является наиболее опасным нарушением, с точки зрения дорожной безопасности. Анализ мировых статистических данных показывает, что необходимо выделить молодых людей, которые чаще других водителей проявляют опасное поведение за рулем и наиболее подвержены дорожно-транспортному травматизму. Для улучшения работы, в данном направлении, необходимо понимать какие условия, провоцирующие агрессивное вождение, существуют в восприятии молодых людей.
В статье представлены результаты, которые были получены с помощью опросника «Агрессивное вождение» (ADQ, Ененкова). Количество респондентов 300 человек, из них 150 водителей и 150 инспекторов дорожного движения. Водители представлены мужчинами до 30 лет.
Результаты сравнительного анализа показывают, что в целом, водители -мужчины до 30 лет, в отличие от инспекторов, более склонны видеть в качестве
провоцирующих условий условия окружающей среды. Они в большей мере, чем инспекторы, отмечали, что провоцировать агрессивное вождение могут: хорошие дорожные условия (p<.01), благоприятные погодные условия (p<.01), безнаказанность нарушений (p<.01), использование алкогольных и наркотических средств (p<.01) и др. Факторный анализ (KMO=.825) позволил выделить, в качестве факторов, провоцирующих агрессивное вождение три фактора (Cronbach's Alpha = .853). Первый фактор (F_ 1 Cronbach's Alpha =.793) связан с условиями, которые создают позитивный эмоциональный фон у водителя, второй (F_2 Cronbach's Alpha = .793) - отрицательный, третий (F_3 Cronbach's Alpha =.745) - поиск впечатлений, который связан с наличием в салоне автомашины пассажира любого пола, а также, с состоянием скуки или монотонии, которые могут возникать в дорожных условиях.
Результаты исследования могут иметь применение в информативнообразовательной сфере, в том числе, при обучении в автошколах.
Ключевые слова: агрессивное вождение; условия, провоцирующие
агрессивное вождение; водители; молодые водители; восприятие водителей; инспектора дорожного движения; факторы, провоцирующие агрессивное вождение; опасное поведение водителей.
Dangerous behaviour of drivers is the reason of many road traffic accidents, which, as often as not, lead to fatal cases and injuries of all participants of the road traffic. The road traffic accidents embraces people of all ages, but the most tragic impact falls on young people.
In connection with this occurrence of injuries of young people can be singled out as a separate problematic issue; and the WHO has begun to strenuously concentrate its attention on this issue starting with 2007. The report "Youth and Road Safety" presented
information that the road traffic accidents are the leading reason of death among children and young people and the majority of these cases fall on audience/groups of people with low and average level of income. Millions of young people get injuries of various degree of severity and “nearly 400 000 young people under the age of 25 are killed in road traffic crashes every year” .
According to data of the Utah Safety Council, such violation like speeding is more observed among young male drivers. Every third road traffic accident is a result of such breach. In order to increase road safety measures some of the countries have implemented speed restrictions for beginners on high speed roads .
P. Allen emphasizes the danger of using alcohol for drivers and underlines that “Accident risk for inexperienced young drivers whose blood alcohol concentration (BAC) exceeds .05 g/dl, is 2.5 times higher than it is for older and experienced drivers” . Due to the fact explicated above, one must control the beginner drivers on the roads by using alcohol tests.
In whole one can note that the offered measures, which are discussed worldwide, have already given a possibility for many countries to decrease the number of death cases and injuries on the roads. Nowadays, the following measures are the most commonly used- limitation of speed of movement, fight against drivers when drunk or after use of drugs .
There are such effective measures increasing safety as follows - use of special seats for children, motorcycle helmets and safety belts, both for children and for adults. For instance, T. Toroyan thinks that there is a possibility of decreasing children mortality by 35% by using children seats, which are appropriate to the age and weight of a child. According to data of NCIPIC, CDC, young people are less tended to use safety belts, although their use decreases death risk in case of an accident by 61% .
The road accidents caused by Pedestrians and bicyclists, participants of the road traffic, can be decreased - in the opinion of Kobusingye, whereas wearing bright or light-reflecting clothes make them rather visible to others .
The methods listed above are intended to increase the level of safety on the roads, nevertheless they cannot be used to solve the full scope of problems regarding the safety on the road. For the purposes of finding a solution for the sphere of road safety, the elements of psychology should be taken into consideration more than they are used now.
It is important to use thoughts, values, knowledges and practices of drivers that appear during social processes. Due to this fact a question should be touched upon studying the aggressive driving style. On the one hand, representations are the result of communication; on the other hand they are a base used for group identity and social interaction. It should be considered as an important aspect, when analyzing drivers' behavior.
As the most dangerous behaviour while driving such phenomenon like aggressive driving can be singled out; danger of this activity is considered by all world communities. This phenomenon is observed mostly among young people. In Latvia with the acuteness of this complex issue a term of aggressive driving was introduced and the punishment was determined. So, in Latvia aggressive driving is to be considered as:
“1) Execution of several consecutive violations, which are connected with establishment of situations that are dangerous to the road traffic or situations putting obstacles in the way of it.
2) Vehicle driving in such way that a violation of the road traffic rules is committed and the hindrances for even flow of the vehicles are created; or interests of drivers of other vehicles are ignored (repeated change of driving lanes with outstripping, lead of several vehicles, which are in traffic jam or moving in a column on the wrong side, or the lane, which is meant for movement of passenger vehicles of public use, on
the roadside, pavement, footway, bikeway or other places not meant for movement of vehicles” , , .
A discursive view of the phenomenon might help to notice the importance of the issue under consideration. The article determines the representations about factors provoking aggressive driving. Understanding of the way of thinking of drivers might help to reveal those factors, which include judgement, the starting mechanism of aggressive driving.
In the course of a multi-stage study different aspects of the phenomenon of “aggressive driving” were studied [5-10]. In all, 2160 respondents took part in the study. All Latvia was represented in the study, because the respondents from all regions of Latvia were surveyed. The following methods were applied during the study: association method; incomplete sentence method; structured, partially structured and non-structured interview; personal differential method; Aggressive Driving Questionnaire (ADQ, Jenenkova).
In this article the study’s results are described, during which a comparative analysis of ideas of the respondents - drivers and road traffic inspectors - were performed in relation to the factors, which, in the eyes of the drivers, provoke aggressive driving.
The number of participants of this study was 300 people, 150 of them were drivers, and 150 - road traffic inspectors. Drivers were represented by men at the age to 30 years, because, according to the statistical data of road traffic accidents in Latvia, male drivers younger than 30 years are the most dangerous for the road traffic participants. Besides, it was discovered during the previous stages of study that the respondents had described this group as the group of potentially dangerous drivers or the risk group. Additionally, during the previous stages of study, respondents singled
out the group of road traffic inspectors. On the one hand road inspectors participate in the traffic; on the other hand they control and organize the process of traffic. The respondents indicated the fact that the inspectors opinion about the phenomena of aggressive driving style is opposite the point of view of young drivers. Besides, the inspectors can be the experts in this case. From the point of safety of driving it was important to learn and compare results of the points of view of these two groups.
In this article the results are represented, which were obtained in the course of study with the help of Aggressive Driving Questionnaire (ADQ, Jenenkova). The Aggressive Driving Questionnaire is meant for research of representations about aggressive driving and includes the following semantic blocks: phenomenon observability; tendencies of the phenomenon under observation; thoughts of the respondents, connected with aggressive driving; characteristics given by the respondents to the present drivers (sex-age, social, personality related); self-concept of knowledge and understanding of normative terminology; manifestations, causes, provoking the factors of the present phenomenon; feelings and reactions caused to the respondents in relation to the present phenomenon; information awareness of the respondents; evaluation of the level of aggressive driving in Latvia and neighboring countries; measures that are directed to decrease the phenomenon under research in the society.
As a result of the study a great amount of data were obtained, which can be presented in various subject blocks. This article considers only the factors, which, in the eyes of the drivers, provoke aggressive driving. Participation in the research was voluntary. Confidentiality was guaranteed to the respondents.
Results and Discussion
To find out the statistically significant differences in evaluation of various components, which can provoke aggressive driving, representations of a group of male drivers at the age from 18 to 30 years (hereinafter referred to as the drivers) and a group
of inspectors were compared in relation to the impacts of provoking components. The significance of statistics in the evaluation of the factors has been evaluated by MannWhitney U - criteria.
The Table 1 shows the assessment of statistically significant differences of answers of drivers and inspectors regarding indicates provoking aggressive driving (Mann-Whitney U -criteria).
Evaluation of statistically significant differences of answers of drivers and inspectors regarding indicates provoking aggressive driving
N Indicates Z P
1 Boredom; monotony of the road and environment -5.832 .000**
2 Presence of a passenger of opposite sex in a car -4.092 .000**
3 Presence of a passenger of the same sex in a car -5.245 .000**
4 Groundless signs (which were forgotten after repair works) -1.325 .185
5 Unclear road marking, signs -2.159 .031*
6 Bad road condition -2.401 .016*
7 Good road condition -7.031 .000**
8 Bad weather conditions -3.221 * * О .0
9 Good weather conditions -4.036 .000**
10 Automobile’s good technical data -3.840 .000**
11 Impunity for violations -5.898 .000**
12 Use of alcohol, drugs -6.560 .000**
13 Behaviour of other drivers -3.663 .000**
* Differences are significant on the level of p<.05 ** Differences are significant on the level of p<.01
The Figure 1 shows the evaluation of conditions, which, in the judgment of respondents, provoke aggressive driving.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
1. Boredom; monotony of the road and environment 8. Bad weather conditions
2. Presence of a passenger of opposite sex in a car 9. Good weather conditions
3. Presence of a passenger of the same sex in a car 10. Automobile’s good technical data
4. Groundless signs (which were forgotten after repair works) 11. Impunity for violations
5. Unclear road marking, signs 12. Use of alcohol, drugs
6. Bad road condition 13. Behaviour of other drivers
7. Good road condition
Figure 1. Conditions, in the judgment of respondents, provoking aggressive driving, according to drivers and inspectors
Data analysis indicates that the representations of the groups under examination have statistically significant differences regarding the components provoking aggressive driving. So, the inspectors, unlike drivers, practically do not refer such factors like boredom, monotony of the road and environment to the provoking components (p<.01).
Inspectors, unlike drivers, are not tended to consider bad weather conditions to be a provoking component (p<.01).
Presence of a passenger of the same sex in a car like a provoking component is more important for drivers than for inspectors (p<.01). Good road condition, as well as good weather conditions, are referred by the drivers, more than by inspectors, to the provoking variables (p<.01).
Impunity for violations, use of alcohol and drugs are evaluated by the inspectors less than a provoking component than it is done by the drivers (p<.01). Such components like good technical condition of a car, behaviour of other drivers and presence of a passenger of opposite sex in a car, as provoking variables, are evaluated by the drivers higher than by inspectors (p<.01).
Such variables - bad road condition and unclear road marking and sign arrangement is evaluated by the drivers more like a provoking one than by the inspectors. So, their statistically significant differences are located on the level p<.05.
To define the basic factors provoking aggressive driving a factor analysis was performed for these groups. Identification of factors was done with the help of the basic component analysis; during factor matrix rotation Varimax method was applied. Reasonability of factor analysis is confirmed by the value of Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy KMO=.825. The Table 2 shows the evaluation factor analysis (provoking factors).
Factors provoking aggressive driving
N Factors Factor load
Factor 1. 1. Good technical data of the automobile 2. Good weather conditions 3. Use of alcohol, drugs 4. Good road condition 5. Behaviour of other drivers 6. Impunity for violations .764 .687 .687 .671 .563 .519
Factor 2. 1. Unclear road marking 2. Bad road condition 3.Groundless signs (which were forgotten after repair works ) 4. Bad weather conditions .819 .785 .768 .589
Factor 3. 1 .Presence of a passenger of the same sex in a car 2.Presence of a passenger of opposite sex in a car 3.Boredom; monotony of the road and environment .810 .772 .613
Cronbach's Alpha .853 KMO Measure of Sampling Adequacy . 825 .793 .793 .745
As a result of the analysis three factors were revealed while studying the respondents’ answers. The factors showed good level of safety, so, Cronbach's Alpha = .853 (general), Factor 1 Cronbach's Alpha =.793; Factor 2 Cronbach's Alpha = .793; Factor 3 Cronbach's Alpha =.745.
Factor 1 Positive emotional background and related factors Factor includes 6 variables, which may create a positive emotional background of the driver. Such conditions, which are characterized as good - car’s technical data, weather conditions, road condition bear potentially comfortable and elevated mood of the driver. As a result of such situation sense of danger is lowered, the driver becomes
less attentive, overestimates his possibilities and technical data of the car. Possible use of alcohol or drugs, as well as behaviour of other people and sense of impunity makes the situation worse.
Factor 2 Negative emotional background and related factors
Factor includes 4 variables referring to the aspect of unfavourable road conditions. The variables refer to bad road infrastructure, bad quality of surface of the road and repair works on the roads in general. Besides, a bad weather condition makes the it difficult to drive on the roads. Probably, this situation facilitates the increase of annoyance of drivers and manifests itself in such behaviour, which the surrounding people describe as aggressive driving.
Factor 3 Presence of a passenger - observer
Factor it includes 3 variables. The factor is more referred to the presence of a passenger-observer of the same or opposite sex in a car, which can have impact both on the emotional condition of the driver and on his actions.
Representing the factors determined during the research, it was indicated that there are two main factors which are directly related to emotions. The mentioned emotions appear as the result of interaction with the environment, as well as the presence of another passenger in the vehicle. Comparing these data obtained, it can be concluded that one can put the point and say that the results of these facts may be confirmed with the results gained in other direct or indirect researches.
Researches conducted by many scientists indicated that the factors of the environment influence relationships among humans (Freedman, 1975; Altman, 1975; Pennebaker, Burnam, Schaeffer, Harper, 1977; Cunningham 1979; Zillmann, 1981; Cohen, Weinstein, 1981; Epstein, 1981; Mueller, 1983; Geen, McCown, 1984; Baron, 1987, as cited in ). Weather conditions can also bring a major impact on aggressive
behaviour (Griffitt, 1970; Baron, 1972, 1975; Bell, 1975; Carlsmith, Anderson, 1979; Rotton, 1986, as cited in ).
The results of different discovers show the affect of alcohol on aggressive behaviour (Boyatzis, 1974; Mayfield, 1976; Larson, 1979; Gustafson, 1986; Richardson, 1981, as cited in ). The presence of alcohol in the organism can stimulate aggressive behaviour, when one gets in a jeopardizing situation. Besides this, alcohol damages complex cognitive processes, which can depress aggressive reactions. As a result of the facts explicated above, the functionary of cognitive processes on the higher level gets impossible and non aggressive cannot be formed (Baron, 1997, as cited in ). The condition of being under the influence of alcohol makes it difficult to concentrate, it makes information look unreal, whereas the non adequate behaviour is being formed.
Presence of passengers can influence drivers' behaviour in different ways. For example, let us consider a situation where a passenger intensifies dominant reactions. If the dominant reactions are aggressive, then the presence of a passenger would stimulate more aggressive actions. The driver can feel the passenger's attention and can change his behaviour. He can show his demonstrative behaviour and can be opposite the norms of behaviour accepted in the society. The passenger may also distract the driver and lower the driver's attention.
When the driver had a short driving experience, then the presence of a complex traffic situation could bring certain difficulties. The presence of other passengers would calm the speed of actions of the driver and increasing the difficulties occurs. As a result, the behaviour of the driver may not be within the norms accepted by the society and may be considered as aggressive.
It is important to note the results of the research, that indicate that aggressive reactions are stimulated, if aggressor waits for an approval from the passenger (Borden, 1975, as cited in ) especially if this person is of an importance to the aggressor
(Felson, Ribner, Siegel, 1984, as cited in ). The researches conducted by Felson and Stesdmen indicated that the third party is intended to provoke the aggression than to be an intermediary to calm things down (Felson, Stesdmen, 1982, as cited in ).
The following results may be drawn towards the representations about the components, which provoke aggressive driving. Using comparative analysis of a group of drivers and a group of inspectors it was found out that there are statistically significant differences regarding the variables, which, in the judgement of the respondents, provoke aggressive driving. It should be emphasized that the respondents-drivers are more tended to see the provocation in the external factors of the environment than the inspectors do.
In the course of a factor analysis it was found out that the structure of representations about provoking factors of the respondents was determined through 3 factors.
The first factor is related to positive emotional background of the driver. The current emotional state may appear when the individual is positively influenced by the environment. The high level of technical characteristics of the vehicle can also be a factor under consideration towards the emotional background effect. Pleasant weather conditions and the good quality of the roads can also influence the driver on a more beneficial mood.
It is critical to emphasize that the emotional background may also be a result of false activity that is based on drugs, when the driver cannot react in an adequate manner. The use of alcohol and drugs, as well as the lack of penalties may provoke aggressive driving or be an element of this factor.
The second factor is connected to negative emotional background, whereas the state of the driver may be influenced by the unpleasant environment or bad weather conditions. The main issues that may provoke negative emotional background are the
bad road quality conditions, not appropriate form of organization of road maintenance works and the low quality of those works provided. This factor indicates the elements which can affect the traffic or disorient the driver, moreover, enabling the aggressiveness.
The third factor is search for impressions, which is connected with presence of a passenger of any sex in the car, as well as, under boredom or monotony, which may arise under the road conditions.
These studies can help understanding in what way the respondents see factors provoking aggressive driving, to what components the male drivers at the age from 18 to 30 years are more oriented. The representations of a group of drivers, which were referred by the respondents of previous studies to the group of potentially dangerous drivers, can be particularly useful while performing prophylactic work directed to decrease of mortality and occurrence of injuries on the roads.
This work has been supported by the European Social Fund within the project “Support for the implementation of doctoral studies at Daugavpils University”. Agreement Nr. 2009/0140/1DP/1. 220.127.116.11./09/IPIA/VIAA/015.
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DATA ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Jenenkova Oksana Vjacheslavovna, PhD student
1. Parades st., Daugavpils, LV-5401, Latvia
ДАННЫЕ ОБ АВТОРЕ
Ененкова Оксана Вячеславовна, PhD студент
ул. Парадес, 1, Даугавпилс, LV-5401, Латвия
Ruza A., Head of the Department, Social Psychology Department, Dr.Psych.,
Associate Professor, Daugavpils University